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Catheter treatment from an Italian medical picture book by Henricus Kullmaurer and Albert Meher, 1510.
DATES and MARKERS

A Prostate Cancer
Timeline: 1

by
Marília Coutinho

Table 1 - Events and organizations

Table 2 - Approaches to cancer treatment


References
KEY TO FONT STYLES:
 impotence
prostate cancer
other cancers
imprecise dates

TABLE 1: EVENTS AND ORGANIZATIONS

YEARS

EVENTS

ORGANIZATIONS

Before 1700

around 1500 BC: Earliest references in the Ebers Papyrus, written in Egypt (Braun)

c. 400 BC: By the time of Hippocrates Greek physicians were familiar with cancers of the breast, stomach and uterus. (Braun); Hippocrates delineated several types of cancer and coined the term"karkinos" (hard lumps) (Cassileth)

c. 160 AD: the Roman physician Galen developed his humoral theory to explain the etiology of cancer, and his views dominated we stern medicine for the next 1500 years. (Braun)

They were specially familiar with breast cancer, which they associated with the suppression of menses (Galluci1)

1530: Antonio Ferri described for the first time the role of prostate tumors in causing bladder outlet obstruction (Perez et al.)

1538: Vesalius provided the first anatomical drawings of the prostate (Perez et al.)

Harvey's theory of circulation and the emergence of modern chemistry eroded the humoral theory. Corrosive acids or ferments would be responsible to create cancer. (Galluci1)

1649: Riolan described a prostate tumor (Perez et al.)

1794: Billie first reported prostatic carcinoma(Perez et al.)

1786: the English anatomist John Hunter demonstrated that removing the testicles from young male animals prevented the growth of the prostate(Perez et al.)

 
1700-1800

 

c. XVIth century: metastasis is understood (Cassileth)

late XVIIIth century: connections between certain occupations and malignant lesions(Cassileth)

XVIIIth century: Zacutus Lusitanus and Daniel Sennert concluded that cancer was contagious and helped initiate the sense of shame, horror and stigma(Cassileth)

XVIIIth century: end of humoral theory, beginning of modern view: localistic. (Cassileth)

Physicians began to describe different tissues (Galluci1) According to Galluci, metastasis was still explained as an amorphous fluid or seed.

Researchers began to liken tumors to embryonic development. (Galluci1)

mid-1750s: Morgagni described prostatic enlargement, with involvement of the seminal vesicles(Shelley)

1761: Hill postulated a connection between the use of snuff and the development of polyps and cancers (Galluci2)

1775: Percivall Pott discovered the relationship between exposure to soot and development of squamous cell carcinomas of the skin (Berlin)

1795: Soemmering reported a link between pipe smoking and oral cancer (Galluci2)

 

1800-1899

XIXth cen: first trends towards medical specialization; identification of difference between malignant and benign forms; surgical mortality decreases due to understanding of asepsis; first cancer journals; first cancer hospitals (Cassileth)

1817: First genuine description of a prostatic carcinoma by George Langstaff in London (Shelley)

1847: Benjamin Brodie described prostatic carcinoma and metastasis to the vertebra (Shelley)

1867: Theodor Billroth performed the first perineal prostatectomy for carcinoma of the prostate (Shelley)

1869: Wilhelm Waldeyer argued that cancers arise from normal epithelium and spread by direct extension via lymphatic system or bloodstream. (Galluci1)

1895: George Beatson reported tumor regressions in pre-menopausal women undergoing oophorectomy for breast cancer (Berlin)

1896: radiation used to treat breast cancer

(late XIXth cent.) First immunologic experiments: Novinsky reported on transplantation of tumors in dogs.

The Free Cancer Hospital was founded in London in 1851. The present hospital was constructed in 1862. It became known as The Royal Marsden Hospital in 1854 (theroyal)

The first center in the United States devoted specifically to cancer research was founded by Dr. Roswell Park in 1898 in Buffalo. It evolved into the Roswell Park Memorial Institute (Rusch)

1900

Boveri proposed the somatic mutation theory, according to which, abnormalities of the chromosomes were responsible for the development of cancer (Galluci2)

The Central Committee for the Study and Control of Cancer was founded in Germany

1

   

2

 

The Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Surgeons of England joined hands in establishing the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, an institution devoted to statistical and experimental cancer research (dukes)

3

   

4

Hugh H. Young of Johns Hopkins University performed the first radical prostatectomy. It was known as the radical perineal prostatectomy (Scott) The operation involved removal of the entire prostate gland, the seminal vesicles, and a small cuff of bladder, with the bladder then sutured to the cut end of the urethra. That became the surgery of choice until the 1940s (Shelley)

 

5

   

6

   

7

 

American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) is founded (http://library.uwaterloo.ca/society/1930_1939.html) (Creech)

8

Ellerman and Bang identified the fowl leukosis virus (Berlin)

The Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research is established (Nakahara)

9

   

10

   

11

Peyton Rous discovered the virus that produces sarcoma in chickens (Berlin)

 

12

   

13

 

Formation of the American Society for the Control of Cancer (later American Cancer Society)

14

   
15
   

16

 

The Journal of Cancer Research started in the United States

17

   

18

Radiation therapy for prostate cancer began before 1920 with the use of radium

 

19

   

20

Warburg proposed that the mitochondrion was the site where carcinogenesis occurred

 

21

 

The Institute Gustave-Roussy is founded in France (a major cancer center, for research as well as clinical treatment) (Bernoulli)

22

   

23

   

24

   

25

 

The Institut Jules Bordet is the first cancer institute in Belgium (Beumer)

26

   

27

   

28

   

29

   
30

Albert Tannebaum showed that calorically restricted diets protected animals from cancer (in the 30's Berlin)

 

31

In the early 30s, Charles Huggins discovered the efficacy of hormonal therapy through castration and estrogen dosage (Scott)

During the 30s, Edith Sproul, Alexander Gutman and Ethel Benedict, at the Presbyterian Hospital in NY, demonstrated striking elevations of acid phosphatase at the site of prostatic cancer metastases in bone. The research showed that blood levels of AP could be correlated with progress of the disease. And since acid phosphates levels in the prostate rise with maturity and vary with hormonal status, it became clear that cancer cells could be functionally mature, not embryonic, which was the prevailing belief of the time. (Sproul)

 

32

   

33

 

International Union Against Cancer (IUAC) = Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) (http://library.uwaterloo.ca/society/1930_1939.html)

34

   

35

   

36

   

37

 

The National Cancer Institute is founded

38

   

39

Leon Jacobsen noted the effect of nitrogen mustard on lymphomas (during WWII) (Berlin)

 

40

In the 40s, Charles Huggins showed that regression of prostate carcinomas could be induced by endocrine controls (Perez et al.) He would receive a Noble Prize for this in 1966.

In the 1940s, Terrence Millin developed his retropubic approach to prostate surgery (Shelley)

 

41

   

42

   

43

   

44

   

45

Sidney Farber began treating childhood leukemia with folic acid antagonists (a few years later) (Berlin)

Terrence Millin pioneered the retropubic prostatectomy (Scott)

 

46

Public Health campaigns of the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society: education about the 7 warning signs, the need for early diagnosis, the increasing use of the Pap smear, the Surgeon General's campaign against smoking, the rise of chemotherapy, the development of megavoltage radiotherapy (Breslow)

 

47

   

48

   

49

   

50

Sarah Stewart identified the polyoma virus (Berlin)

(fifties) First trials on external radiotherapy for prostate cancer (Hafermann)

The recent history of penile prosthesis dates back to 1950, when Dr. Scardino implanted the first synthetic material into the penis.

 

51

   

52

   

53

Methotrexate began to achieve high cure rates in treating choriocarcinoma (Berlin)

 

54

   

55

   

56

Brice Vallet of the United States began employing the transsacral prostatectomy (Shelley)

 

57

   

58

The Lacy-Zarubin Agreement between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. targeted on cooperative work against cancer. (Bruno)

 

59

   

60

Studies in the 60s about Japanese migrants moving to California (stomach cancer decreased, colorectal increased) (Berlin)

Oncology evolved into a recognized medical discipline in the 60s (Cassileth)

By the early sixties, radiotherapy had become an important new tool in the fight against prostate cancer (Hafermann)

In the 1960s J.A. Del Regato led the way in external megavoltage therapy of prostate cancer (Scott)

 

61

   

62

   

63

   

64

   

65

   

66

Charles Huggins received a Nobel Prize for his earlier work demonstrating the effect of hormonal manipulation (castration and adrenalectomy) in prostate cancer (Berlin)

 

67

   

68

   

69

   

70

Combination chemotherapy providing long-term survival for 50% of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (Berlin);

Elwood Jensen identified an estrogen receptor in some breast cancers (Berlin)

 

71

Dr. Gerald Murphy of the National Prostate Cancer Project in the 1970s and 1980s developed several chemotherapeutic protocols using cyclophosphamide, estrmustine, 5-fluorouracil, semustine, dacarbazine, and streptozotocin. (Scott)

The National Cancer Act: between 1971 and 1976 the budget of the NCA increased from $180 to $815 million. Just over 50% was spent on basic research (Rettig, Schmidt)

72

The U.S.-U.S.S.R. Bilateral Health Agreement, in which both countries agreed to share info on chemotherapy, virology, cellular genetics and cancer epidemiology (Bruno)

 

73

   

74

   

75

Evidence for relationship between diet (fat consumption) and prostate cancer (Carrol & Khor)

 
76
   

77

   

78

   

79

   

80

   

81

   

82

 

The International Society for Impotence Research (ISIR) was founded

83

   

84

   

85

   

86

the FDA approved the PSA test to aid in the care of patients already diagnosed with cancer. It was approved in conjunction with a digital rectal exam. http://oncolink.upenn.edu.

 

87

1st meeting of the Asia Pacific Society for Impotence Research

The American Foundation for Urologic Disease was founded

88

   

89

1st International meeting of andrology -- 1989 Jun : Rome

New Product: Vet-Co starts producing vacuum devices for impotence

The Male Health Center was founded by Dr. Kenneth A. Goldberg, in Dallas, Texas

90

 

US-TOO is founded

91

   

92

NIH Consensus development conference (on impotence) -- 1992 Dec : Bethesda; MD

 

93

 

CaP CURE is founded to find a cure for advanced prostate cancer.

"Real Men Cook" To Fight Prostate Cancer founded by Dr. Fred D. Parrott, Founder and Director of the Foundation

94
 

American Prostate Society is Formed?

95

Cryosurgery was accepted as an alternative procedure for the treatment of prostate cancer by the American Urological Association (Robert S. Gould, personal comm.)

FDA Approves Alprostadil for Male Impotence - Reprinted from the August 1995 issue of Medical Sciences Bulletin;

1st meeting of the European Society for Impotence Research

 

96

 

the National Prostate Cancer Coalition (NPCC) was born.

97

   

98

March 27: The Food and Drug Administration today announced the approval of Viagra (sildenafil citrate), the first oral pill to treat impotence, a dysfunction that affects millions of men in the United States.

Copyright: Rejoyn (vacuum pump)

 
99

In February, 1999 cryosurgery was accepted as treatment for prostate cancer by HCFA (The Health Care Financing Assoc - Medicare's financing arm of the U.S. Government). (Robert S. Gould, personal comm.)

 

100

   

REFERENCES

NAME Reference

Berlin, Nathaniel I. The Conquest of Cancer. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 22 (Summer 1979), 500-18.

Bernoulli, R. Un Gran méconnu: Gustave Roussy. Gesnerus 37 (1980), 34-19.

>Beumer, J. "Jules Bordet, 1870-1961". Journal of General Microbiology 29 (1962), 1-13.

Braun, Armin C. History of the Tumor Problem. In: The Story of Cancer. On its Nature, Causes, and Control. New York: 1977.

Breslow, Lester. A History of Cancer Control in the United States, 1946-1971. Bethesda: 1977.

Bruno, Anthony. National Cancer Institutes: An Overview with Historic Footnotes: A Report on the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Health Agreement. National Cancer Institute Monographs 40 (February 1974), 7-20.

Carroll, K.K. & H. T. Khor ?? Progress in Biochemical Pharmacology 10 (1975).

Cassileth, Barrie R. The Evolution of Oncology. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 26 (Spring 1983), 362-74.

Creech, H.J. Historical Review of the American Association of Cancer Research, Inc., 1941-1978. Cancer Research 39 (June 1979), 1863-90.

Deeley, Thomas J. A Brief History of Cancer. Clinical Radiology 34 (1983), 597-608.

Dukes, C.E. The Origin and Early History of Imperial Cancer Research Fund. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeon of England 36 (1965), 1165-69.

Gallucci, Betty B. Selected Concepts of Cancer as a Disease: From the Greeks to 1900. Oncology Nursing Forum 12 (July-August 1985), 67-71.

Selected Concepts of Cancer as a Disease: From 1900 to Oncogenes. Oncology Nursing Forum 12 (July-August 1985), 69-78.

Hafermann, M. External Radiotherapy. Urology 17 (April 1981), 15.

Nakahara, Waro. A Pilgrim's Progress in Cancer Research, 1918 to 1974: An Autobiographical Essay. Cancer Research 34 (1974), 1767-74.

Perez, Carlos A., William R. Fair, Daniel C. Ihde, and Ferdinand Labrie. Cancer of the Prostate. In: Vincent P. DeVita, Jr., Samuel Hellman, and Steven A. Rosenberg. Cancer. Principles & Practice of Oncology. 1985. Pp. 929.

The Royal Marsden Hospital. Cancer Bulletin 14 (May-June 1962), 53.

Rettig, Richard A. Cancer Crusade: The Story of the National Cancer Act of 1971. Princeton: 1977.

Rusch, Harold P. The Beginnings of Cancer Research Centers in the United States. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 74 (February 1985), 391-403.

Schmidt, Benno C. Five Years Into the National Cancer Program: A Retrospective Perspective - the National Cancer Act of 1971. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 59 (August 1977), 687-92.

Scott, William W. Historical Overview of the Treatment of Prostate Cancer. The Prostate 4 (1983), 435-40.

Shelley, Harry S. The Enlarged Prostate. A Brief History of Its Treatment. The Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 24 (October 1969), 452-73.

Sproul, Edith E. Acid Phosphatase and Prostate Cancer: Historical Overview. The Prostate 1 (1980), 411-13.

Comments:

Cancer is a disease of modern society for several reasons: 1. Increase in life expectancy; 2. Better clinical diagnosis; 3. Increased exposure to causative carcinogens (deeley)


This Timeline document is available with gray background optimised for Netscape 2

© Marília Coutinho 1999, All Rights Reserved.
See also Marília Coutinho & Glaucio Soares
Why Men Have Trouble Organizing Against Prostate Cancer

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December 12,1999
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